
(Q7) Wave Mechanics
That was the basic idea of what was called "wave mechanics"meaning, not the mechanics of waves, but a reformulation, in terms of waves, of the branch of physics known as mechanics, which deals with motions of matter. Newtonian mechanics treats matter strictly as localized particles, or of bodies and fluids consisting of such particles. Wave mechanics asserts that when one gets down to the atomic level, particles sometimes need to be treated as waves, spread out in space, their location and momentum not known until they interact. Even then, as Heisenberg showed in his uncertainty principle, one can never extract full information. Particles and WavesWhat sort of strange wave was that? It may help if we first examine electromagnetic waves, and then compare.The concept of an electromagnetic wave evolved in steps. First came measurements of electric and magnetic forces (e.g. section 5 in "A Millennium of Geomagnetism") which led to the concept of constant electric and magnetic fields. A magnetic field originally was a region of space where a magnetic force could be detected, if a tiny magnet were placed there, and an electric field was where an electric charge could detect a local electric force. But in the absence of such probes, we have in principle no indication that a field existsall we would see was empty space. At this stage there seemed to exist no compelling reason to claim such space was itself modified, even though Michael Faraday may have felt it was. (1) Light as a WaveMaxwell took the next step by showing that oscillating linked electric and magnetic fields, propagated as a wave and could account for the properties of visible light and related radiations. "Propagating as a wave" here implies a certain mathematical representation, of oscillating and (in general) spreading electric and magnetic fields. Other waves in nature are usually disturbances spreading in some mediume.g. sound in air is a disturbance in the ambient pressure. Earthquake waves inside the Earth also can propagate the way sound does, but a second separate mode of "transverse waves" exists there too, where the material shakes sideways, perpendicular to the direction of propagation, like the jiggling of gelatin jelly in a mold. Maxwell's electromagnetic waves were also "transverse" modes, with electric and magnetic forces perpendicular to the direction of spreading. But waves in what? What was the material in which they spread? For a while, physicists believed in the existence of an invisible allpervading "aether," and electromagnetic waves were waves in the aether, which jiggled like a jelly. But the properties of this "aether" seemed strange. Sound spreading in air registers differently whether the observer approaches the source or recedes from it ("Doppler effect"), and so does lightthat is how we tell distant galaxies are receding. However, if we take a beam of light in the lab and split it into two components ("MichelsonMorley experiment"), one parallel to the motion of the Earth around the Sun (at 1/10,000 the speed of light) and one perpendicular, no difference can be detected. If the universe is filled with "aether" in which light propagates, the motion of the Earth relative to it turned out to be umobservable. We therefore now regard those fields as properties of space, to which no motion can be ascribed, and the electromagnetic waves propagate "in space." (2) Light as a Stream of ParticlesLight can also resemble a stream of particles, on two completely different levels. In elementary optics classes one often talks about rays of light, following straight lines like a stream of bullets. That was also how early research in optics viewed light. Later studies demonstrated that on small scales, of the order of a wavelength, light displayed a wave nature, e.g. in the dark and light lines on the boundary of a narrow slit (or on the boundaries of "floaters" often seen in one's own eye when it is half closed). Mathematics of wave motion showed that rays and waves were not contradictory: the behavior of light could be described by rays, if the scale of the viewed object was much larger than a wavelength. But on a scale of atoms light again behaved in a particlelike fashion. Einstein's relation showed that when light of frequency ν gave up or received energy, it did so in definite portions, in "photons" which could also be viewed as particles, since their action was localized. Like a material particle, the photon also has momentum, and the momentum of such photons makes solar sails possible. But unlike the particle aspect of ray motion, here the "particles of light" were linked to a definite constant of nature, Planck's constant h.
While light is in transit, it is a wave, and its strength at any point gives us the likelihood, the probability, that a photon may be detected there. This analogy was also used by Schrödinger when he proposed to represent solid matter by a wave. The wave itself satisfies "Schrödinger's equation", a wave equation, and the value of the wave variableusually represented by the Greek letter ψ (psi)gives the probability of the particle will be observed there (Actually, the probability is given by the square of ψ, but that is similar to an electromagnetic wave, where the square of its amplitude determines the energy density).
OrbitalsOnly when we get down to atomic dimensionsas defined by Planck's constant hdoes the wave nature dominate the behavior. In a hydrogen atom, for instance, the wave then can be stable only in certain resonant states"eigenstates," a word cobbled together from German and English, with "eigenvalues" giving the energy levels. The atom is then like some musical instrument tuned to certain notese.g. it can sound a C or a D, but never an inbetween false note. Until its note sounds, we only know the likelihood of it being this state or that.This is quite different from the BohrSommerfeld atom where (at least initially) Kepler orbits served as a model to the motion of electrons. Those Kepler orbits were classified by total energy and angular momentum (corresponding to ellipticity), but they were all flat, twodimensional. Even now, in the popular literature, atoms are often drawn as miniature planetary systems: but that is not the correct picture. In contrast, wave functions are 3 dimensional, spread over space. Yet their basic modes can also be classified, and interestingly, the scheme of modes turns out similar to the one based on Kepler motion, although the underlying concepts are quite different. (The mathematical tools are somewhat related to the ones used by Gauss to extract the main modes of the Earth's magnetic fieldtools taken, in turn, from modes deduced for the Earth's gravity field). Nowadays the basic modes of atomic (or molecular) wave functions are often known as orbitals, patterns of regions in which the wave function is concentrated. The lowest orbitals are symmetric and spherical, but the more complex ones have multiple lobes, a bit like 3dimensional cloverleaf patterns with various numbers of lobes. The basic classification is still by energyn=1 levels, then n=2 levels, etc. In additions, the levels of asymmetry are denoted by values (0,1,2,3,...) of (lower case) L (representing angular momentum, related to asymmetry) or, traditionally, by letters (s,p, d, f....), as shown on the energylevel diagram in the preceding section. The "s" mode is symmetric, "p" has 2lobed symmetry, then "d" , then "f", etc. A third number m exists, and visual descriptions of the peaks of the modes can be found here; of course, these are just the surfaces where the wave function is largest, from which it tapers down to the rest of space. Orbitals are important not only when the atom jumps from a high level to a lower (unoccupied) one, but also, in an atom at its lowest level ("ground state") it turns out electrons must occupy different orbitals (except that electrons with opposed spin may double up). That idea has led to an explanation of the periodic table of chemical elements. Orbitals can also be deduced for molecules, which have more complex spectra, usually in the infrared. Later DevelopmentsThe above are just the basics, a preliminary reconnaissance of a new terrain. For detail and applications one must study quantum theory systematicallywith all its math, its manipulations of angular momentum and spin and so forth, followed perhaps by scattering theory, Dirac's theory of the electron, quantum electrodynamics and more.
The mathematical treatment has led to a fairly good understanding of atomic spectra, including their intensity variationsalthough solving for energy levels of complicated atoms requires tedious approximations. (It is the same in celestial mechanicsthe tracking of a single planet around its sun is simple, but tracking multiple objects interacting with each other is hard). Quantum theory also led to an understanding of molecular spectra, of the chemical bond, of the periodic table of elements (see above), of the behavior of atoms arranged in crystals (including semiconductors, which made computers practical), of electric "superconductivity" in very cold materials, of magnetic effects on which both medical imaging (MRI) and modern magnetometry depend, of lasers and a lot more.
Questions from Users: What keeps Electrons away from the Atomic Nucleus? *** Doubleslit diffraction of particles 
Next Stop: (Q8) Quantum Tunneling Or else, return to section #6 on physics related to the Sun: (S6) Seeing the Sun in a New Light Timeline Glossary Back to the Master List
Author and Curator: Dr. David P. Stern 